#### Algorithm

A sequence of actions designed to solve a problem, commonly used in mathematical computations and computer science. Algorithms form the basis of programming languages. They progress through a series of control stages to achieve a goal. Once the desired result is achieved, the algorithm is considered complete. Algorithms can be expressed using plain statements or flowcharts.

## What is an Algorithm?

An algorithm is a procedure applied to perform tasks on hardware and software. This procedure includes a complete list of all tasks. Algorithms transform data into usable information, solving problems by determining the clearest and simplest process. A process requires input to begin.

For example, let's explain how a desktop computer starts working. To turn on the computer, you need to press the power button. The power button activates the computer using energy from the power unit. If there is no energy in the power unit, it won't work. The control parameter here is whether there is electrical energy. The input parameter to start the computer's algorithm is pressing the power button.

The term "algorithm" reached us through the pronunciation of the name of the 8th-century mathematician Al-Khwarizmi by Europeans. Al-Khwarizmi conducted the first studies on algorithms and mentioned them in his book "Hisab al-jabr wa al-muqabala." His work contributed to the development of modern mathematics, the creation of programming languages, and the advancement of computer technologies. Fixed algorithms are developed for solving specific problems.

## How Does an Algorithm Work?

An algorithm works through three stages: input, computation, and output. Input is the data necessary for the algorithm to start. The algorithm begins once it receives the appropriate input data, then progresses according to a series of instructions. This stage, called computation, involves making decisions based on control parameters. Depending on the decision, it proceeds to the next step. After the final step, it moves to the output stage, completing the algorithm. Let's examine how an algorithm works using an example.

Consider the working algorithm of automatic windshield wipers in vehicles. For the wiper to work, it needs to rain. In this algorithm, the input data is the condition of the rain. There is a rain sensor connected to the wiper motor. The sensor detects the rain condition and informs the wiper motor. During the computation stage, if it is raining, the sensor activates the wiper motor; if it is not raining, the sensor stops the wiper motor. The output data is the operational state of the wiper motor.

## Types of Algorithms

There are different types of algorithms for various situations, such as:

- Search engine algorithms, which list search results based on keywords and popularity.
- Encryption algorithms, which make data that would pose a security risk appear meaningless, and can only be understood by those with the key codes.
- Greedy algorithms, used to find the best possible solution for optimization problems.
- Iterative algorithms, which continuously repeat until a solution is reached.
- Divide and conquer algorithms, which solve large problems by breaking them into smaller units.
- Brute force algorithms, which attempt all possible solutions to find a result.
- Sorting algorithms, which reorder data by comparing and arranging them.
- Hashing algorithms, which condense complex data into a single message.

Algorithms are used in all applications that perform any function in electronic and digital environments today. Those considering career development in fields like electronic circuit design and programming should have knowledge of algorithms and data structures to get ahead in the industry.

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